Issue: 2019 > December > review

The diagnosis of male breast cancer

M.N. Nofal, A.J. Yousef
AbstractFull textPDF


Background: To review the procedural diagnosis of male breast cancer.
Methods: Medline and Google Scholar searches using the terms (male breast cancer) and (diagnosis); and (triple assessment).
Results: Most of the search-specific items are incorporated in more comprehensive reviews about male breast cancer in general. Relevant data was extracted in accordance with the aim of this review.
Results: Most of the diagnosed cases are advanced stage ductal invasive carcinomas, express hormone receptors in the great majority, and are less likely to over-express HER2-neu. They present usually as a painless retroareolar mass that requires triple assessment. The diagnosis needs a high index of suspicion primarily due to the unawareness of such a cancer in males.