Two cases are reported of patients on continuous
ambulatory peritoneal dialysis who presented with
peritonitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes. They were
successfully treated with intraperitoneal and intravenous
administration of amoxicillin. In patients on peritoneal
dialysis, Listeria monocytogenes is a very rare cause of
peritonitis, with only 11 cases reported to date, and mainly occurring in immunocompromised patients. In contrast to the majority of the reported cases, neither of our patients had received immunosuppressive drugs. To our knowledge, these are the first two cases of Listeria peritonitis reported in the Netherlands.