With a rising incidence of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients coinfected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), there is a need for
evidence-based treatment recommendations. There are no randomised trials available and published studies differ with respect to design, patient characteristics and number of patients included, making a comparison between studies difficult. However, it is critical to standardise treatment for this group of patients in order to optimise the outcome of therapy. The Dutch Society for HIV Physicians proposed to write recommendations for the treatment of acute HCV in HIV -coinfected patients. Combination therapy with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin is the preferred regimen initiated preferably within 12 weeks after the diagnosis of acute HCV. A treatment duration of 24 weeks is recommended in case of a favourable virological response (either achievement of a rapid virological response or a
>2log10 decrease plus undetectable HCV-RNA at week 12). In all other patients prolonging the duration of therapy to 48 weeks should be considered.