Background: Myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome is defined by the combination of erythrocytosis, myomatous uterus and persistent restoration of normal haematological values after hysterectomy. A pathogenic role of erythropoietin is suggested by clinical and experimental data.
Case report: A postmenopausal patient is described with
the classical clinical signs of the myomatous erythrocytosis syndrome. During hysterectomy we demonstrated a large gradient between the erythropoietin levels in the uterine vein and artery, providing direct evidence for <i>in vivo</i> erythropoietin production by the myomatous uterus.
Conclusion: While erythropoietin and its receptor are
consecutively expressed in normal and myomatous uterine tissue, it is amazing that erythrocytosis occurs so rarely in such a frequent disorder as uterine myomatosus. We strongly advocate cytogenetic examination of the myomatous tissue of subsequent patients with this entity.