Human beings are inhabited by innumerable microorganisms that interrelate with the host in a reciprocal way, establishing a combined and efficient ecosystem – the microbiota – that can affect healthiness as well as disease. There is evidence that the conformation of the microbiota may influence, and is controlled by, the human immune system.
Microbes existing in human tissues offer a multiplicity of advantages that participate in functional actions in the host through the adjustment of essential processes such as immunity, signal transduction, and metabolism. The imbalance of this microbial structure has been connected with the pathogenesis and progression of cancer. We reviewed the present knowledge of the diverse microbial ecosystems and we investigated their potential link to carcinogenesis, and the possibility of using advantageous microbes in controlling and preventing hematologic malignancies.