The outcome of HIV-1 infection is highly variable: not all individuals exposed to HIV-1 will become infected, and among individuals who do become infected the time from infection to clinical AIDS is highly variable. This variability is thought to reflect the complex interactions between virus and host. An important role for host genetic factors in the pathogenesis of HIV-1 infection is increasingly being appreciated. Many novel genetic polymorphisms have been identified and analysed for their role in HIV-1 transmission and disease progression. Here an overview is provided on polymorphisms in chemokines and chemokine receptors that influence HIV-1 disease.