Among immunocompromised patients morbidity and
mortality due to vaccine-preventable infections is high.
Although vaccination seems indicated, controversy exists
about which vaccines should be offered, at what moment, and to whom. Guidelines are needed as the number of immunocompromised individuals increases due to the wider use of immunosuppressive drugs and, in particular, because since the introduction of biological agents, the spectrum of immunosuppressive drugs is rapidly expanding. In this review we will highlight controversies about vaccination in immunocompromised patients and will discuss indications for the several vaccines available to prevent infectious diseases with the focus on patients with autoimmune-inflammatory diseases.