Since about three decades, inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system have been available in clinical
practice. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB) were primarily aimed at treatment of hypertension and heart failure, more of their positive effects were discovered later on. Patients with chronic
kidney disease were recognised to profit the most from
treatment with these agents; however some blind spots are still present. Patients with advanced renal failure are almost always excluded from the trials; patients with end-stage renal disease form the least studied population of all and outcomes of treatment with ACEi/ARB are still uncertain in these cohorts. The aim of this review is to summarise and update the evidence about effects of AII inhibitors in patients with chronic kidney disease with the specific emphasis on patients
treated with dialysis. Lately a novel indication for ACEi/ARB administration, especially for peritoneal dialysis patients, has been proposed. It is based on the capacity of these drugs to inhibit the local tissue renin-angiotensin system, which results in less development of peritoneal fibrosis and a longer life for the peritoneal membrane. The most recent available data are presented in this review.